By Christina Silver, Sarah L. Bulloch, & Michelle Salmona
Our contribution discusses synchronous online teaching of digital tools for qualitative and mixed-methods analysis, known as Computer Assisted Qualitative Data AnalysiS (CAQDAS) packages, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers must take responsibility for, and be sensitive to, the current additional challenges and pressures upon learners and attend to them effectively. Learners are never homogenous but, in these contexts, their heterogeneity and personal situations bring our responsibilities as teachers into sharper focus.
Challenges of teaching CAQDAS-packages
Teaching CAQDAS-packages is challenging as research methods and technology are taught together, and researchers often need support overcoming hurdles associated with integrating technology into research practice. Although it can support critical reflection on methods-driven research, novice researchers have trouble connecting method and software (Salmona & Kaczynski, 2016; Schmieder, 2020).
Traditionally CAQDAS is taught in-person but even before COVID-19, there was a gradual move to online courses, which can be cost-effective and reach wider groups. However, teaching CAQDAS online has its own challenges, including possible technical problems, catering to different learning styles, and interactional issues (Kalpokaite & Radivojevic, 2020). Learning CAQDAS-packages online also heightens challenges in overcoming barriers to successful technological adoption due to the lack of support normally present in-person (Salmona & Kaczynski, 2016). Teaching CAQDAS-packages online during COVID-19 poses additional challenges related to learner availability, real-life bleeding into the classroom, and resultant interactional issues.
Learner availability in the COVID-context
Pre-COVID-19, both in-person and online, certain assumptions were often made concerning the ‘availability’ of learners:
- They would be present for the duration, unless specific exceptions were brokered; e.g. warning they may have to take a call or leave early.
- Only registered learners would be present – not family-members, carers, or dependents as well.
- Learners would be in a state of mental and physical health suited to learning.
Teachers could generally assume to be engaging not with whole individuals, but with focused
“learners”: the mentally present and mentally well, physically present and physically well, the not-distracted, the captive from start to finish, solo individuals.
Real-life bleeding into the classroom
During COVID-19 these assumptions no longer hold true. We cannot expect learners to focus for the whole allotted time because they cannot necessarily physically or emotionally remove themselves from their home-life contexts. New distractions and stresses include: interruptions from household members, capacity to concentrate for lengthy periods of screen-time, and mental-health issues associated with being more isolated. However, because in-person interactions have largely vanished, learners are keen to participate in online sessions, despite the distractions and stresses. Online sessions also provide learning opportunities for those previously unable to access in-person events.
As we teach and learn from our homes, real-lives bleed into the classroom. Sharing our images via video-stream allows others into our lives, which is potentially risky. We’ve found more learners choose not to share their video-stream than do, especially in larger groups and when they don’t know each other.
What we miss by not ‘seeing’
Those used to teaching in-person can find this tricky, as the non-verbal cues used to judge learners’ progress are absent. CAQDAS teachers can no longer ‘walk-the-room’ observing learners’ computer-screens to identify those needing additional support. Screen-sharing can be a solution; but is more time-consuming and ethically difficult when working with confidential data, and impossible if using two devices (one to access the meeting, the other to operate the CAQDAS-package). We miss a lot by not seeing in these ways.
One risk is that those who can actively participate inadvertently soak-up attention at the cost of those who cannot. It’s our responsibility as teachers to be aware of this and design creative solutions to enable every learner to participate as much as they are willing and able, whilst still benefiting from the session.
Adjusting tactics for the ‘new normal’
We’re therefore continually adjusting how we teach CAQDAS-packages online during COVID-19. Current uncertainties land responsibilities on us as teachers, not on our course participants: we must find out what they need, reflect on our practice, and refine our pedagogies.
Moving from in-person to online always requires a redesign (Silver & Bulloch, 2020), but during COVID-19 we are also:
- Educating ourselves about accessibility to ensure we sensitively and effectively open our events to every type of learner
- Engaging learners more before sessions to understand personal/research needs and provide pre-course familiarisation materials
- Reducing class-sizes. It’s often assumed class-sizes can be larger online, but we find the opposite, especially during COVID-19. Although we’ve recently experienced pressure to increase group size, we’re resistant because of the increased need to balance the requirements of every learner, and provide individual support
- By co-teaching we provide additional support in synchronous online events during COVID-19. Learners can be split according to their needs and two groups supported simultaneously
- Providing more post-course resources to support learners’ continued use of CAQDAS-packages and hosting platforms for them to communicate with one another afterwards (e.g. VLE platforms)
- Diversifying teaching tactics to provide as many opportunities as possible for learners to engage and participate. Awareness of different ways people learn has always been central to our pedagogies (Silver & Woolf 2015), but our sensitivities and reflections have increased. We’ve found mixing up tactics (see image) in shorter sessions more effective.
Where do we go from here?
Teachers continually critique and reflect on practice, but COVID-19 requires a re-evaluation of learners’ differences and reflection about their more challenging situations. We are all learning and must continue to do so.
COVID-19 brings ethical issues even more to the forefront, including the appropriateness of requiring or encouraging learners to share their image via video. We must think about disabilities, access to technology, and socio-economic issues in a context where learning is only available online. Positives have also emerged, as sessions can be followed from a range of devices and locations.
COVID-19 forces us to explicitly consider the well-being of learners. Despite coming at this difficult time, we welcome this focus. All our situations have changed, so we need to think about the issues differently. What are the additional ethical issues we must now address? How do we keep this conversation going?
About the authors
Together we have 50+ years experience teaching CAQDAS-packages and 30+ years experience teaching online. Dr Michelle Salmona is President of the Institute for Mixed Methods Research and an international consultant in: program evaluation; research design; and mixed-methods and qualitative data analysis using data applications. Michelle is also an Adjunct Professor at the University of Canberra, Australia specializing in qualitative and mixed methods research. Dr Sarah L Bulloch is a social researcher passionate about methods, with expertise in qualitative and quantitative analysis, as well as mixing the two. She has worked in academic, government, voluntary and private sectors. Sarah teaches introductory and advanced workshops in several CAQDAS packages as a Teaching Fellow for the CAQDAS Networking Project at the University of Surrey, as well as teaching quantitative analysis using SPSS. Dr Christina Silver is Director of Qualitative Data Analysis Services, providing training and consultancy for qualitative and mixed-methods analysis. She also manages the CAQDAS Networking Project (CNP), leading its capacity-building activities. She has trained thousands of researchers in the powerful use of CAQDAS-packages, including NVivo, and developed the Five-Level QDA® method with Nick Woolf.
- Kalpokaite, N. & Radivojevic, I. (2020). Teaching qualitative data analysis software online: a comparison of face-to-face and e-learning ATLAS.ti courses, International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 43(3), pp. 296-310, DOI:10.1080/1743727X.2019.1687666.
- Salmona, M. & Kaczynski, D. (2016). Don’t Blame the Software: Using Qualitative Data Analysis Software Successfully in Doctoral Research. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 17(3), Art 11, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1603117.
- Schmieder, C. (2020). Qualitative data analysis software as a tool for teaching analytic practice: Towards a theoretical framework for integrating QDAS into methods pedagogy. Qualitative Research, 20(5), pp. 684-702.
- Silver, C. & Woolf, N (2015) “From guided instruction to facilitation of learning: The development of Five-level QDA as a CAQDAS pedagogy that explicates the practices of expert users” International Journal of Social Research Methodology, Vol. 18, Issue 5. Pp527-543
- Silver, C. & Bulloch, S.L (2020) Teaching NVivo using the Five-Level QDA(R) Method: Adaptations for Synchronous Online Learning. Paper presented at the QSR International Virtual Conference, Qualitative Research in a Changing World. September 24th 2020